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How Memory Leaks Happen in a Java Application | @CloudExpo #JVM #Java #Virtualization
One of the core benefits of Java is the JVM, which is an out-of-the-box memory management

How Memory Leaks Happen in a Java Application
By Eugen Paraschiv

Introduction to Memory Leaks In Java Apps
One of the core benefits of Java is the JVM, which is an out-of-the-box memory management. Essentially, we can create objects and the Java Garbage Collector will take care of allocating and freeing up memory for us.

Nevertheless, memory leaks can still occur in Java applications.

In this article, we're going to describe the most common memory leaks, understand their causes, and look at a few techniques to detect/avoid them. We're also going to use the Java YourKit profiler throughout the article, to analyze the state of our memory at runtime.

1. What is a Memory Leak in Java?
The standard definition of a memory leak is a scenario that occurs when objects are no longer being used by the application, but the Garbage Collector is unable to remove them from working memory - because they're still being referenced. As a result, the application consumes more and more resources - which eventually leads to a fatal OutOfMemoryError.

For a better understanding of the concept, here's a simple visual representation:

How memory leaks happen in Java

As we can see, we have two types of objects - referenced and unreferenced; the Garbage Collector can remove objects that are unreferenced. Referenced objects won't be collected, even if they're actually not longer used by the application.

Detecting memory leaks can be difficult. A number of tools perform static analysis to determine potential leaks, but these techniques aren't perfect because the most important aspect is the actual runtime behavior of the running system.

So, let's have a focused look at some of the standard practices of preventing memory leaks, by analyzing some common scenarios.

2. Java Heap Leaks
In this initial section, we're going to focus on the classic memory leak scenario - where Java objects are continuously created without being released.

An advantageous technique to understand these situations is to make reproducing a memory leak easier by setting a lower size for the Heap. That's why, when starting our application, we can adjust the JVM to suit our memory needs:

-Xms<size>

-Xmx<size>

These parameters specify the initial Java Heap size as well as the maximum Heap size.

2.1. Static Field Holding On to the Object Reference
The first scenario that might cause a Java memory leak is referencing a heavy object with a static field.

Let's have a look at a quick example:

private Random random = new Random();
public static final ArrayList<Double> list = new ArrayList<Double>(1000000);

@Test
public void givenStaticField_whenLotsOfOperations_thenMemoryLeak() throws InterruptedException {
for (int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++) {
list.add(random.nextDouble());
}

System.gc();
Thread.sleep(10000); // to allow GC do its job
}

We created our ArrayList as a static field - which will never be collected by the JVM Garbage Collector during the lifetime of the JVM process, even after the calculations it was used for are done. We also invoked Thread.sleep(10000) to allow the GC to perform a full collection and try to reclaim everything that can be reclaimed.

Let's run the test and analyze the JVM with our profiler:

Java static memory leak

Notice how, at the very beginning, all memory is, of course, free.

Then, in just 2 seconds, the iteration process runs and finishes - loading everything into the list (naturally this will depend on the machine you're running the test on).

After that, a full garbage collection cycle is triggered, and the test continues to execute, to allow this cycle time to run and finish. As you can see, the list is not reclaimed and the memory consumption doesn't go down.

Let's now see the exact same example, only this time, the ArrayList isn't referenced by a static variable. Instead, it's a local variable that gets created, used and then discarded:

@Test
public void givenNormalField_whenLotsOfOperations_thenGCWorksFine() throws InterruptedException {
addElementsToTheList();
System.gc();
Thread.sleep(10000); // to allow GC do its job
}

private void addElementsToTheList(){
ArrayList<Double> list = new ArrayList<Double>(1000000);
for (int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++) {
list.add(random.nextDouble());
}
}

Once the method finishes its job, we'll observe the major GC collection, around 50th second on the image below:

Java static no memory leak

Notice how the GC is now able to reclaim some of the memory utilized by the JVM.

How to prevent it?
Now that you understand the scenario, there are of course ways to prevent it from occurring.

First, we need to pay close attention to our usage of static; declaring any collection or heavy object as static ties its lifecycle to the lifecycle of the JVM itself, and makes the entire object graph impossible to collect.

We also need to be aware of collections in general - that's a common way to unintentionally hold on to references for longer than we need to.

2.2. Calling String.intern() on Long String
The second group of scenarios that frequently causes memory leaks involves String operations - specifically the String.intern() API.

Let's have a look at a quick example:

@Test
public void givenLengthString_whenIntern_thenOutOfMemory()
throws IOException, InterruptedException {
Thread.sleep(15000);

String str
= new Scanner(new File("src/test/resources/large.txt"), "UTF-8")
.useDelimiter("\\A").next();
str.intern();

System.gc();
Thread.sleep(15000);
}

Here, we simply try to load a large text file into running memory and then return a canonical form, using .intern().

The intern API will place the str String in the JVM memory pool - where it can't be collected - and again, this will cause the GC to be unable to free up enough memory:

Java String intern memory leak

We can clearly see that in the first 15th seconds JVM is stable, then we load the file and JVM perform garbage collection (20th second).

Finally, the str.intern() is invoked, which leads to the memory leak - the stable line indicating high heap memory usage, which will never be released.

How to prevent it?
Please remember that interned String objects are stored in PermGen space - if our application is intended to perform a lot of operations on large strings, we might need to increase the size of the permanent generation:

-XX:MaxPermSize=<size>

The second solution is to use Java 8 - where the PermGen space is replaced by the Metaspace - which won't lead to any OutOfMemoryError when using intern on Strings:

Finally, there are also several options of avoiding the .intern() API on Strings as well.

2.3. Unclosed Streams
Forgetting to close a stream is a very common scenario, and certainly, one that most developers can relate to. The problem was partially removed in Java 7 when the ability to automatically close all types of streams was introduced into the try-with-resource clause.

Why partially? Because the try-with-resources syntax is optional:

@Test(expected = OutOfMemoryError.class)
public void givenURL_whenUnclosedStream_thenOutOfMemory()
throws IOException, URISyntaxException {
String str = "";
URLConnection conn
= new URL("http://norvig.com/big.txt").openConnection();
BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(
new InputStreamReader(conn.getInputStream(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8));

while (br.readLine() != null) {
str += br.readLine();
}

//
}

Let's see how the memory of the application looks when loading a large file from an URL:

Java unclosed streams memory leak

As we can see, the heap usage is gradually increasing over time - which is the direct impact of the memory leak caused by not closing the stream.

How to prevent it?
We always need to remember to close streams manually, or to make a use of the auto-close feature introduced in Java 8:

try (BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(
new InputStreamReader(conn.getInputStream(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8))) {
// further implementation
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

In this case, the BufferedReader will be automatically closed at the end of the try statement, without the need to close it in an explicit finally block.

2.4. Unclosed Connections
This scenario is quite similar to the previous one, with the primary difference of dealing with unclosed connections (e.g. to a database, to an FTP server, etc.). Again, improper implementation can do a lot of harm, leading to memory problems.

Let's see a quick example:

@Test(expected = OutOfMemoryError.class)
public void givenConnection_whenUnclosed_thenOutOfMemory()
throws IOException, URISyntaxException {

URL url = new URL("ftp://speedtest.tele2.net");
URLConnection urlc = url.openConnection();
InputStream is = urlc.getInputStream();
String str = "";

//
}

The URLConnection remains open, and the result is, predictably, a memory leak:

Java unclosed connections memory leak

Notice how the Garbage Collector cannot do anything to release unused, but referenced memory. The situation is immediately clear after the 1st minute - the number of GC operations rapidly decreases, causing increased Heap memory use, which leads to the OutOfMemoryError.

How to prevent it?
The answer here is simple - we need to always close connections in a disciplined manner.

2.5. Adding Objects with no hashCode() and equals() into a HashSet
A simple but very common example that can lead to a memory leak is to use a HashSet with objects that are missing their hashCode() or equals() implementations.

Specifically, when we start adding duplicate objects into a Set - this will only ever grow, instead of ignoring duplicates as it should. We also won't be able to remove these objects, once added.

Let's create a simple class without either equals or hashCode:

public class Key {
public String key;

public Key(String key) {
Key.key = key;
}
}

Now, let's see the scenario:

@Test(expected = OutOfMemoryError.class)
public void givenMap_whenNoEqualsNoHashCodeMethods_thenOutOfMemory()
throws IOException, URISyntaxException {
Map<Object, Object> map = System.getProperties();
while (true) {
map.put(new Key("key"), "value");
}
}

This simple implementation will lead to the following scenario at runtime:

Java no hascode equals memory leak

Notice how the garbage collector stopped being able to reclaim memory around 1:40, and notice the memory leak; the number of GC collections dropped almost four times immediately after.

How to prevent it?
In these situations, the solution is simple - it's crucial to provide the hashCode() and equals() implementations.

One tool worth mentioning here is Project Lombok - this provides a lot of default implementation by annotations, e.g. @EqualsAndHashCode.

3. How to Find Leaking Sources in Your Application
Diagnosing memory leaks is a lengthy process that requires a lot of practical experience, debugging skills and detailed knowledge of the application.

Let's see which techniques can help you in addition to standard profiling.

3.1. Verbose Garbage Collection
One of the quickest ways to identify a memory leak is to enable verbose garbage collection.

By adding the -verbose:gc parameter to the JVM configuration of our application, we're enabling a very detailed trace of GC. Summary reports are shown in default error output file, which should help you understand how your memory is being managed.

3.2. Do Profiling
The second technique is the one we've been using throughout this article - and that's profiling. The most popular profiler is Visual VM - which is a good place to start moving past command-line JDK tools and into lightweight profiling.

In this article, we used another profiler - YourKit - which has some additional, more advanced features compared to Visual VM.

3.3. Review Your Code
Finally, this is more of a general good practice than a specific technique to deal with memory leaks.

Simply put - review your code thoroughly, practice regular code reviews and make good use of static analysis tools to help you understand your code and your system.

Conclusion
In this tutorial, we had a practical look at how memory leaks happen on the JVM. Understanding how these scenarios happen is the first step in the process of dealing with them.

Then, having the techniques and tools to really see what's happening at runtime, as the leak occurs, is critical as well. Static analysis and careful code-focused reviews can only do so much, and - at the end of the day - it's the runtime that will show you the more complex leaks that aren't immediately identifiable in the code.

Finally, leaks can be notoriously hard to find and reproduce because many of them only happen under intense load, which generally happens in production. This is where you need to go beyond code-level analysis and work on two main aspects - reproduction and early detection.

The best and most reliable way to reproduce memory leaks is to simulate the usage patterns of a production environment as close as possible, with the help of a good suite of performance tests.

And early detection is where a solid performance management solution and even an early detection solution can make a significant difference, as it's the only way to have the necessary insight into the runtime of your application in production.

The full implementation of this tutorial can be found over on GitHub. This is a Maven based project, so it can simply be imported and run as it is.

The post How Memory Leaks Happen in a Java Application appeared first on Stackify.

Read the original blog entry...

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In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
The need for greater agility and scalability necessitated the digital transformation in the form of following equation: monolithic to microservices to serverless architecture (FaaS). To keep up with the cut-throat competition, the organisations need to update their technology stack to make software development their differentiating factor. Thus microservices architecture emerged as a potential method to provide development teams with greater flexibility and other advantages, such as the abili...
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architec...
The use of containers by developers -- and now increasingly IT operators -- has grown from infatuation to deep and abiding love. But as with any long-term affair, the honeymoon soon leads to needing to live well together ... and maybe even getting some relationship help along the way. And so it goes with container orchestration and automation solutions, which are rapidly emerging as the means to maintain the bliss between rapid container adoption and broad container use among multiple cloud host...
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across business networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost as well as advance trade. Are you curious about how Blockchain is built for business? In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, discussed the b...
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
While some developers care passionately about how data centers and clouds are architected, for most, it is only the end result that matters. To the majority of companies, technology exists to solve a business problem, and only delivers value when it is solving that problem. 2017 brings the mainstream adoption of containers for production workloads. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ben McCormack, VP of Operations at Evernote, discussed how data centers of the future will be managed, how the p...
As DevOps methodologies expand their reach across the enterprise, organizations face the daunting challenge of adapting related cloud strategies to ensure optimal alignment, from managing complexity to ensuring proper governance. How can culture, automation, legacy apps and even budget be reexamined to enable this ongoing shift within the modern software factory? In her Day 2 Keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Aruna Ravichandran, VP, DevOps Solutions Marketing, CA Technologies, was jo...
"Since we launched LinuxONE we learned a lot from our customers. More than anything what they responded to were some very unique security capabilities that we have," explained Mark Figley, Director of LinuxONE Offerings at IBM, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration an...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...

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Sponsorship opportunities are now open for Big Data at Cloud Expo 2017 Santa Clara, Oct 31-Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and Big Data at Cloud Expo 2018 New York, June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. For sponsorship, exhibit opportunities and show prospectus, please contact Carmen Gonzalez, carmen (at) sys-con.com.



Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

MAHADEV
Cisco

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

FELICIANO
AMDG

PAUL
VenueNext

SMITH
Eviot

BEAMER
goTraverse

GETTENS
goTraverse

CHAMBLISS
ReadyTalk

HERBERTS
Cityzen Data

REITBAUER
Dynatrace

WILLIAM-
SON

Cloud
Computing

SCHMARZO
EMC

WOOD
VeloCloud

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

VARAN-
NATH

GE

SRIDHARA-
BALAN

Pulzze

METRIC
Linux

MONTES
Iced

ARIOLA
Parasoft

HOLT
Daitan

CUNNING-
HAM

ReadyTalk

BEDRO-
SIAN

Cypress

NAMIE
Cisco

NAKA-
GAWA

Transparent
Cloud

SHIBATA
Transparent
Cloud

BOYD
Neo4j

WARD
DWE

MILLER
Covisint

EVAVOLD
Covisint

MEINER
Oracle

MEEHAN
Esri

WITECK
Citrix

LIANG
Rancher Labs

BUTLER
Tego

ROWE
IBM Cloud

SKILLERN
Intel

SMITH
Numerex
Big Data Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

CLELAND
HGST

VASILIOU
Catchpoint

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

HINCH-
CLIFFE

7Summits

DE SOUZA
Cisco

RANDALL
Gartner

ARMSTRONG
AppNeta

SMALLTREE
Cazena

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

DELOACH
Infobright

QUINT
Ontegrity

MALAUCHLAN
Buddy Platform

PALIOTTA
Vector

MITRA
Cognizant

KOCHER
Grey Heron

PAPDO
POULOS

Cloud9

HARLAN
Two Bulls

GOLO
SHUBIN

Bit6

PROIETTI
Location
Smart

MARTIN
nfrastructure

MOULINE
Everbridge

MARSH
Blue Pillar

PARKS
SecureRF

PEROTTI
Plantronics

HOFFMAN
EastBanc

WATSON
Trendalyze

BENSONOFF
Unigma

SHAN
CTS

MATTELA
Redpine

GILLEN
Spark
Coginition

SOLT
Netvibes

BERNARDO
GE Digital

ROMANSKY
TrustPoint

BEAMER
GoTransverse

LESTER
LogMeIn

PONO
-MAREVA

Google

SINGH
Sencha

CALKINS
Amadeus

KLEIN
Rachio

HOASIN
Aeris

SARKARIA
PHEMI

SPROULE
Metavine

SNELL
Intel

LEVINE
CytexOne

ALLEN
Freewave

MCCALLUM
Falconstor

HYEDT
Seamless

Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

SCHULZ
Luxoft

TAMBURINI
Autodesk

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

THURAI
SaneIoT

TURNER
Cloudian

ENDO
Intrepid

NAKAGAWA
Transparent

SHIBATA
Transparent

LEVANT-LEVI
testRTC

VARAN NATH
GE

COOPER
M2Mi

SENAY
Teletax

SKEEN
Vitria

KOCHER
Grey Heron

GREENE
PubNub

MAGUIRE
HP

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

STEINER-JOVIC
AweSense

LYNN
AgilData

HEDGES
Cloudata

DUFOUR
Webroot

ROBERTS
Platform

JONES
Deep

PFEIFFER
NICTA

NIELSEN
Redis

PAOLALANTORIO
DataArchon

KAHN
Solgenia

LOPEZ
Kurento

KIM
MapR

BROMHEAD
Instaclustr

LEVINE
CytexOne

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

GORBACHEV
Intelligent
Systems

THYKATTIL
Navisite

TRELOAR
Bebaio

SIVARAMA-
KRISHNAN

Red Hat
Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

DE SOUZA
Cisco

POTTER
SafeLogic

ROBINSON
CompTIA

WARUSA
-WITHANA

WSO2 Inc

MEINER
Oracle

CHOU
Microsoft

HARRISON
Tufin

BRUNOZZI
VMware

KIM
MapR

KANE
Dyn

SICULAR
Basho

TURNER
Cloudian

KUMAR
Liaison

ADAMIAK
Liaison

KHAN
Solgenia

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

SUSSMAN
Coalfire

ISAACSON
RMS

LYNN
CodeFutures

HEABERLIN
Windstream

RAMA
MURTHY

Virtusa

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE MENO
CommVault

GRILLI
Adobe

WILLIAMS
Rancher Labs

CRISWELL
Alert Logic

COTY
Alert Logic

JACOBS
SingleHop

MARAVEI
Cisco

JACKSON
Softlayer

SINGH
IBM

HAZARD
Softlayer

GALLO
Softlayer

TAMASKAR
GENBAND

SUBRA
-MANIAN

Emcien

LEVESQUE
Windstream

IVANOV
StorPool

BLOOMBERG
Intellyx

BUDHANI
Soha

HATHAWAY
IBM Watson

TOLL
ProfitBricks

LANDRY
Microsoft

BEARFIELD
Blue Box

HERITAGE
Akana

PILUSO
SIASMSP

HOLT
IBM Cloudant

SHAN
CTS

PICCININNI
EMC

BRON-
GERSMA

Modulus

PAIGE
CenturyLink

SABHIKHI
Cognitive Scale

MILLS
Green House Data

KATZEN
CenturyLink

SLOPER
CenturyLink

SRINIVAS
EMC

TALREJA
Cisco

GORBACHEV
Systems Services Inc.

COLLISON
Apcera

PRABHU
OpenCrowd

LYNN
CodeFutures

SWARTZ
Ericsson

MOSHENKO
CoreOS

BERMINGHAM
SIOS

WILLIS
Stateless Networks

MURPHY
Gridstore

KHABE
Vicom

NIKOLOV
GetClouder

DIETZE
Windstream

DALRYMPLE
EnterpriseDB

MAZZUCCO
TierPoint

RIVERA
WHOA.com

HERITAGE
Akana

SEYMOUR
6fusion

GIANNETTO
Author

CARTER
IBM

ROGERS
Virtustream
Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers

TESAR
Microsoft

MICKOS
HP

BHARGAVA
Intel

RILEY
Riverbed

DEVINE
IBM

ISAACSON
CodeFutures

LYNN
HP

HINKLE
Citrix

KHAN
Solgenia

SINGH
Bigdata

BEACH
SendGrid

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE SOUZA
Cisco

PATTATHIL
Harbinger

O'BRIEN
Aria Systems

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

BIANCO
Solgenia

PROCTOR
NuoDB

DUGGAL
EnterpriseWeb

TEGETHOFF
Appcore

BRUNOZZI
VMware

HICKENS
Parasoft

KLEBANOV
Cisco

PETERS
Esri

GOLDBERG
Vormetric

CUMBER-
LAND

Dimension

ROSENDAHL
Quantum

LOOMIS
Cloudant

BRUNO
StackIQ

HANNON
SoftLayer

JACKSON
SoftLayer

HOCH
Virtustream

KAPADIA
Seagate

PAQUIN
OnLive

TSAI
Innodisk

BARRALL
Connected Data

SHIAH
AgilePoint

SEGIL
Verizon

PODURI
Citrix

COWIE
Dyn

RITTEN-
HOUSE

Cisco

FALLOWS
Kaazing

THYKATTIL
TimeWarner

LEIDUCK
SAP

LYNN
HP

WAGSTAFF
BSQUARE

POLLACK
AOL

KAMARAJU
Vormetric

BARRY
Catbird

MENDEN-
HALL

SUPERNAP

SHAN
KEANE

PLESE
Verizon

BARNUM
Voxox

TURNER
Cloudian

CALDERON
Advanced Systems

AGARWAL
SOA Software

LEE
Quantum

OBEROI
Concurrent, Inc.

HATEM
Verizon

GALEY
Autodesk

CAUTHRON
NIMBOXX

BARSOUM
IBM

GORDON
1Plug

LEWIS
Verizon

YEO
OrionVM

NAKAGAWA
Transparent Cloud Computing

SHIBATA
Transparent Cloud Computing

NATH
GE

GOKCEN
GE

STOICA
Databricks

TANKEL
Pivotal Software


Testimonials
This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
@SteveMar_Msft
General Manager of Window Azure
 
How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
@SOASoftwareInc
 
Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
Yasser Khan
CEO of @Cnnct2me
 
One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."

@Peak_Ten


Who Should Attend?
Senior Technologists including CIOs, CTOs & Vps of Technology, Chief Systems Engineers, IT Directors and Managers, Network and Storage Managers, Enterprise Architects, Communications and Networking Specialists, Directors of Infrastructure.

Business Executives including CEOs, CMOs, & CIOs , Presidents & SVPs, Directors of Business Development , Directors of IT Operations, Product and Purchasing Managers, IT Managers.

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Cloud Expo Show Guide
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Join Us as a Media Partner - Together We Can Rock the IT World!
SYS-CON Media has a flourishing Media Partner program in which mutually beneficial promotion and benefits are arranged between our own leading Enterprise IT portals and events and those of our partners.

If you would like to participate, please provide us with details of your website/s and event/s or your organization and please include basic audience demographics as well as relevant metrics such as ave. page views per month.

To get involved, email Patricia Henderson at patricia@sys-con.com.

@CloudExpo Blogs
Bitcoins are a digital cryptocurrency and have been around since 2009. As a substitute for legal tender, they are becoming the rage for investors and others but because there is no government agency auditing or performing regulatory oversights, you wonder if it is the perfect breeding ground for electronic nano crime. Since the introduction of the Bitcoin, some competitors have emerged and the whole segment of cryptocurrencies are defined as Altcoins. Altcoins include Dogecoin, Ethereum Feathercoin, Litecoin, Novacoin, Peercoin, and Zetacoin. Some of these cryptocurrencies are considered impro...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management c...
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
Blockchain offers impeccable security with its cryptography-based decentralized system as well as the plethora of possible uses retailers could exploit in the near future. In a world of increasing cyberattacks, internet fraud and online hacking, blockchain comes as a breath of fresh air. With its encrypted data and decentralized network system, it's a thorn in every hacker's side. Generally being associated with the finance sector, blockchain is now taking retail by storm. It's on a course that will change the retail industry as we know it. But how exactly is it going to achieve such a feat?
Blockchain. A day doesn’t seem to go by without seeing articles and discussions about the technology. According to PwC executive Seamus Cushley, approximately $1.4B has been invested in blockchain just last year. In Gartner’s recent hype cycle for emerging technologies, blockchain is approaching the peak. It is considered by Gartner as one of the ‘Key platform-enabling technologies to track.’ While there is a lot of ‘hype vs reality’ discussions going on, there is no arguing that blockchain is being taken very seriously across industries and cannot be ignored.
Making informed network investment decisions about emerging technologies such as network function virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) can help evolve the network to keep pace with the innovations of the devices and people it’s connecting. As you work with business leaders to make decisions about upgrading your infrastructure with these networking developments, it’s important to understand the similarities, differences, and benefits of dual NFV and SDN implementation. With their ability to offer a new way to design, deploy, and manage the network and its services, NFV a...
ChatOps is an emerging topic that has led to the wide availability of integrations between group chat and various other tools/platforms. Currently, HipChat is an extremely powerful collaboration platform due to the various ChatOps integrations that are available. However, DevOps automation can involve orchestration and complex workflows. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Himanshu Chhetri, CTO at Addteq, will cover practical examples and use cases such as self-provisioning infrastructure/applications, self-remediation workflows, integrating monitoring and complimenting integra...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and optimization to employee training and insights, all ultimately create the best customer experience b...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, which can process our conversational commands and orchestrate the outcomes we request across our persona...
Most of us understand that artificial intelligence (AI) offers opportunities for productivity improvements in the form of speed, automation, standardized actions and responses, plus the opportunity for continuous improvements via machine learning. These opportunities are enabled by data inputs that are analyzed and processed through AI algorithms that execute a desired decision and action. For all of the great capabilities and benefits that AI can provide, there is also a potential dark side. AI solutions can easily codify our prejudices, bias, gender stereotypes and promote injustices intenti...
The need for greater agility and scalability necessitated the digital transformation in the form of following equation: monolithic to microservices to serverless architecture (FaaS). To keep up with the cut-throat competition, the organisations need to update their technology stack to make software development their differentiating factor. Thus microservices architecture emerged as a potential method to provide development teams with greater flexibility and other advantages, such as the ability to deliver applications at warp speed using infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a ...
For DevOps teams, the concepts behind service-oriented architecture (SOA) are nothing new. A style of software design initially made popular in the 1990s, SOA was an alternative to a monolithic application; essentially a collection of coarse-grained components that communicated with each other. Communication would involve either simple data passing or two or more services coordinating some activity. SOA served as a valid approach to solving many architectural problems faced by businesses, as applications could be developed by more teams working in parallel and more productively by reusing orig...
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
It has never been a better time to be a developer! Thanks to cloud computing, deploying our applications is much easier than it used to be. How we deploy our apps continues to evolve thanks to cloud hosting, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and now Function-as-a-Service. FaaS is the concept of serverless computing via serverless architectures. Software developers can leverage this to deploy an individual "function", action, or piece of business logic. They are expected to start within milliseconds and process individual requests and then the process ends.
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architect, explored how storage and software-defined solutions from IBM have evolved for the road ahead. Lea...
Some journey to cloud on a mission, others, a deadline. Change management is useful when migrating to public, private or hybrid cloud environments in either case. For most, stakeholder engagement peaks during the planning and post migration phases of a project. Legacy engagements are fairly direct: projects follow a linear progression of activities (the “waterfall” approach) – change managers and application coders work from the same functional and technical requirements. Enablement and development mirror one another, progressing from proof-of-concept planning to final product delivery. Exce...
Gone are the days when application development was the daunting task of the highly skilled developers backed with strong IT skills, low code application development has democratized app development and empowered a new generation of citizen developers. There was a time when app development was in the domain of people with complex coding and technical skills. We called these people by various names like programmers, coders, techies, and they usually worked in a world oblivious of the everyday priorities of the business world. However, with the passage of time, this scenario is much more democr...
The use of containers by developers -- and now increasingly IT operators -- has grown from infatuation to deep and abiding love. But as with any long-term affair, the honeymoon soon leads to needing to live well together ... and maybe even getting some relationship help along the way. And so it goes with container orchestration and automation solutions, which are rapidly emerging as the means to maintain the bliss between rapid container adoption and broad container use among multiple cloud hosts. This BriefingsDirect cloud services maturity discussion focuses on new ways to gain container orc...