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Using XML Schemas and DTDs Together
Using XML Schemas and DTDs Together

XML Schemas are quickly becoming the industry standard that Document Type Definitions (DTDs) used to be. Much has been written about the advantages of XML Schemas over DTDs. Indeed, Schemas do offer advantages. However, with all the focus on the need to transition from DTDs to Schemas, it seems that little attention has been paid to how XML Schemas and DTDs can be used together.

This article focuses on how to validate an XML document against an XML Schema and a DTD at the same time. Additionally, the article focuses on how to transition from using DTDs exclusively to using both XML Schemas and DTDs. This type of transition is especially important for organizations that have heavily invested in DTDs and now have large document inventories based on them. The XML Schema and DTD in this article will be a small version of the DocBook DTD standard - a modular approach to building DTDs that has long been a standard for SGML developers. Although the example is presented in a recognizable DocBook format, it could easily be adapted to work with XML Schemas and DTDs not based on the DocBook standard. The example could also be adapted to work in a developmental environment in which a "full-version" of DocBook might be used.

A first step to consider when moving to XML Schemas is whether to write the schema from scratch, generate it from an XML document, or convert it from an existing DTD. Of these options, the first is probably the least desirable, unless development time is not an issue, which is probably not the case. A good compromise to writing a schema from scratch is to generate it automatically from an existing XML document. To generate a schema from an XML document using XMLSPY, open the XML document, select "DTD/Schema," and then select the "Generate DTD/Schema" option.

If an XML document on which a schema can be based is not available, consider generating one from an existing text file. One way to locate text-to-XML conversion programs is to search on "text to XML" on www.oreilly.com site. Unidex also offers a free trial download of XML Convert - a Java-based program for converting text files to XML (www.unidex.com/download.htm). Also, the example program ConvertToHTML in Chapter 14 of K.N. King's book Java Programming: From the Beginning can easily be modified to convert text files to basic XML.

In many cases though, organizations that are considering moving to XML Schemas are likely to be migrating to them from existing DTDs. The question then is how to convert these existing DTDs to XML Schemas. There are at least two known methods for converting DTDs to XML Schemas. One method is to use the Perl script DTD2Schema, which is available at www.w3.org/2000/04/schema_hack. Unlike many XML conversion utilities written in Perl, this one does not require the installation of any Perl modules. To convert a DTD to a schema using DTD2Schema, use the following command: perl DTD2Schema.pl file.dtd > file.xsd. This script will work well for converting a DTD to a schema if the DTD is contained within a single file and is not overly complex. If a DTD comprises multiple files, then converting it to a schema can best be done by using a tool such as TIBCO's TurboXML (also known as XML Authority), which is available for trial download at www.tibco.com/solutions/products/extensibility/turbo_xml.jsp.

To convert a DTD to a schema using TurboXML, use the following steps:
1.  Open the DTD in TurboXML.
2.  Select File and then select Export.
3.  From the Export options, select the XSD Schema option.
4.  Then provide an output file name and location for the XML Schema.

Note that after completing these steps, there is no "export complete" prompt to the user.

The converted schema will be available in the user-specified output location almost immediately after performing these steps. TurboXML works quite well in converting even the most complex DTDs to XML Schemas.

In transitioning from DTDs to Schemas, there are definitely advantages in using conversion tools such as TurboXML. However, in using these conversion tools, be aware of two issues. First, organizations want to transition to schemas primarily because schemas allow for restricting data based on data types - integer, float, and decimal, for example. The problem in using an automated conversion tool for converting DTDs to schemas is that data types are not automatically added to the converted schema. They have to be added manually after the fact. This often goes unmentioned in discussions of automatically converting DTDs to schemas. Second, if the DTD contains text or document entities, an automated DTD-to-schema conversion tool will not convert these. The conversion tool will simply skip these entities. If they no longer need to be used in XML authoring, then this is not an issue. If there is a need to continue using them, however, two options are available. One is to include the entities in an internal DTD located in the top portion of each XML document. The other choice is to include them in an external DTD. In either case, the XML document will need to be validated against both a DTD and an XML Schema simultaneously if it contains text or document entity references.

If a task entails managing XML files with a relatively small number of entities that are used in a predictable way in XML authoring, using an internal DTD may be a good idea. Even if there are several entities to be used in document authoring, it may be advisable to use an internal DTD to define entities that may be unique to a particular XML document. To validate an XML document against an internal DTD and a schema, the following example code would need to be placed at the top of the XML file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE RootElementName [
<!ENTITY file01.tif SYSTEM "file01.tif" NDATA tif>
<!NOTATION tif SYSTEM "tif">
]>
<RootElementName id="RootElementID"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="MySchema.xsd">

In this example, the internal DTD contains a single entity - a .tif image file defined as file01.tif. Any number of entities could be defined in this way within the brackets [ ] at the top of the XML file. The example also contains a reference to an XML Schema named MySchema.xsd.

Probably the most common development scenario would be a need to validate an XML document against an internal DTD, an external DTD, and a schema. Example code for doing this is as follows:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE RootElementName PUBLIC "My Organization//My DTD
Description//LANGUAGE"
"my.dtd" [
<!ENTITY file01.tif SYSTEM "file01.tif" NDATA tif>
<!NOTATION tif SYSTEM "tif">
]>
<RootElementName id="RootElementID"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="MySchema.xsd">

In this example, there are really three separate validations taking place. The XML document validates against an external DTD (my.dtd), an internal DTD with an entity declaration (file01.tif), and an XML Schema (MySchema.xsd). The external DTD in this case would contain entity declarations for any text or document entities. The schema in this case would contain element and attribute declarations as well as any data type restrictions on those elements and attributes.

In looking at the example in the sample code (available below), consider the needs of an Internet-based company offering online access to technical white papers. In our fictional example, some of the white papers on the company site are offered free of charge, and others papers can be downloaded from the site for a fee. To better manage the data available on the site, the company has built XML files to store information about each white paper. To manage these XML files, the company has designed an XML Schema, an internal DTD, and an external DTD. Figure 1 is an overview of the schema and DTDs the company has designed.

1.  The schema consists of the following components (which will be described in more detail momentarily): top-level "subject elements," DocBook "information pool" elements, the XML Exchange table model elements, and subject elements added to the XML Exchange table model.
2.  The internal DTD consists of entity declarations for graphics - such as screen shots - that are unique to a particular white paper.
3.  The external DTD is divided into the following parts (which will be described in more detail momentarily): DocBook ISO text entities and document entities.

In our example schema, there are four top-level subject elements - CopyrightNotice, Disclaimer, Abstract, and Biblio- Data. On our fictional site, the white papers offered free of charge contain a CopyrightNotice informing the reader that permission is granted to copy and distribute the paper to anyone, anywhere. The white papers on our site that can be downloaded for a fee contain a CopyrightNotice informing the reader that unauthorized distribution of the paper is punishable by a $1,000,000 fine and 10 years of hard labor in San Quinten. Each white paper contains a disclaimer protecting the company from damages resulting from loss of data or revenue as a result of using the ideas in the paper. Each white paper also contains an abstract summarizing the contents of the paper. Associated with each paper is a BiblioData element, which contains Author, Title, PaperDate, PaperNumber, PaperSubject, FileSize, and NumberOfPages elements.

The seven elements within the BiblioData element will be stored within the entry element of the XML Exchange table model - a subset of the CALS table model. By using subject elements within the entry of element of the XML Exchange model, we can more easily constrain the table data using a schema and more easily search the data using XPath queries. One additional advantage to using a CALS-based table is that the standard elements (such as entry and row) can be inserted automatically into a document using an XML editor such as Epic, which is available from Arbortext at www.arbortext.com.

To help constrain the data in the BibloData element, we assign XML Schema data types to each of seven elements. The Author, Title, and PaperSubject elements are assigned a text data type. The FileSize element has a decimal type and the NumberOfPages element has an integer type. The PaperDate must match a year, month, day pattern (i.e., YYYYMMDD) and the PaperNumber must match the pattern of PNUM- followed by four digits.

Since many of the white papers have multiple authors, we assign a numeric value of 100 or 700 to the "type" attribute of the Author element. The value 100 identifies an author as a primary author of paper, and a value of 700 identifies an author as a coauthor of a paper. The numeric attribute values of 100 and 700 are based on the Library of Congress cataloging record known as the MARC record. For many years, the MARC record has been a standard for cataloging library materials in machine-readable format.

Recently, the MARC record has been converted to XML format. The XML Schema for the MARC record can be downloaded from the Library of Congress site at www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/schema/MARC21slim.xsd. For more information on the MARC record in general, see http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/umb.

In addition to the XML Exchange table model, our example schema also contains elements - such as para - that are part of the information pool module of the DocBook DTD. The information pool elements are commonly used elements in many XML document types. Our example schema will contain a handful of these commonly used elements.

The external DTD in our example contains ISO text (or character) entities and document entities. The text entities allow a document author to insert special characters or symbols into an XML document. Our example DTD contains these entities "as is" from the DocBook DTD.

Added to the DocBook entities are modules for document entities. In our example we have three document entities, which reference text file information for CopyrightNotice and Disclaimer information associated with each white paper. Declaring document entities in an external DTD allows text files to be reused in multiple XML documents as a user has a need to reference the data.

Now that we've described our XML Schema and DTDs, we can view the results in XMLSPY and Internet Explorer. Figure 2 provides a view of validating a sample XML document in XMLSPY using our example schema and DTDs. Figure 3 provides a view of this same XML document in Internet Explorer.

Summary
I've explained the ease with which you can validate an XML document against both a DTD and an XML Schema. I've also discussed how to convert a DTD to a schema and transitioning from DTDs to schemas. The DTD and schema design methods described in this article can be adapted to a variety of XML development projects. These methods provide an effective way to manage data using both DTDs and an XML Schemas.

I hope that the example in this article is helpful. Any questions about the sample code may be directed to me via e-mail; I'll be happy to help.

About Greg Watson
Greg Watson is a Computer Systems Analyst working in the area of XML development at the
Defense Intelligence Agency’s Missile and Space Intelligence Center. In 2002, he spoke at the
Intelligence Community Conference on XML Metadata.

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In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
The cloud era has reached the stage where it is no longer a question of whether a company should migrate, but when. Enterprises have embraced the outsourcing of where their various applications are stored and who manages them, saving significant investment along the way. Plus, the cloud has become a defining competitive edge. Companies that fail to successfully adapt risk failure. The media, of course, continues to extol the virtues of the cloud, including how easy it is to get there. Migrating...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
As DevOps methodologies expand their reach across the enterprise, organizations face the daunting challenge of adapting related cloud strategies to ensure optimal alignment, from managing complexity to ensuring proper governance. How can culture, automation, legacy apps and even budget be reexamined to enable this ongoing shift within the modern software factory? In her Day 2 Keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Aruna Ravichandran, VP, DevOps Solutions Marketing, CA Technologies, was jo...
While some developers care passionately about how data centers and clouds are architected, for most, it is only the end result that matters. To the majority of companies, technology exists to solve a business problem, and only delivers value when it is solving that problem. 2017 brings the mainstream adoption of containers for production workloads. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ben McCormack, VP of Operations at Evernote, discussed how data centers of the future will be managed, how the p...
"Since we launched LinuxONE we learned a lot from our customers. More than anything what they responded to were some very unique security capabilities that we have," explained Mark Figley, Director of LinuxONE Offerings at IBM, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...

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Sponsorship opportunities are now open for Big Data at Cloud Expo 2017 Santa Clara, Oct 31-Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and Big Data at Cloud Expo 2018 New York, June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. For sponsorship, exhibit opportunities and show prospectus, please contact Carmen Gonzalez, carmen (at) sys-con.com.



Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

MAHADEV
Cisco

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

FELICIANO
AMDG

PAUL
VenueNext

SMITH
Eviot

BEAMER
goTraverse

GETTENS
goTraverse

CHAMBLISS
ReadyTalk

HERBERTS
Cityzen Data

REITBAUER
Dynatrace

WILLIAM-
SON

Cloud
Computing

SCHMARZO
EMC

WOOD
VeloCloud

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

VARAN-
NATH

GE

SRIDHARA-
BALAN

Pulzze

METRIC
Linux

MONTES
Iced

ARIOLA
Parasoft

HOLT
Daitan

CUNNING-
HAM

ReadyTalk

BEDRO-
SIAN

Cypress

NAMIE
Cisco

NAKA-
GAWA

Transparent
Cloud

SHIBATA
Transparent
Cloud

BOYD
Neo4j

WARD
DWE

MILLER
Covisint

EVAVOLD
Covisint

MEINER
Oracle

MEEHAN
Esri

WITECK
Citrix

LIANG
Rancher Labs

BUTLER
Tego

ROWE
IBM Cloud

SKILLERN
Intel

SMITH
Numerex
Big Data Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

CLELAND
HGST

VASILIOU
Catchpoint

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

HINCH-
CLIFFE

7Summits

DE SOUZA
Cisco

RANDALL
Gartner

ARMSTRONG
AppNeta

SMALLTREE
Cazena

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

DELOACH
Infobright

QUINT
Ontegrity

MALAUCHLAN
Buddy Platform

PALIOTTA
Vector

MITRA
Cognizant

KOCHER
Grey Heron

PAPDO
POULOS

Cloud9

HARLAN
Two Bulls

GOLO
SHUBIN

Bit6

PROIETTI
Location
Smart

MARTIN
nfrastructure

MOULINE
Everbridge

MARSH
Blue Pillar

PARKS
SecureRF

PEROTTI
Plantronics

HOFFMAN
EastBanc

WATSON
Trendalyze

BENSONOFF
Unigma

SHAN
CTS

MATTELA
Redpine

GILLEN
Spark
Coginition

SOLT
Netvibes

BERNARDO
GE Digital

ROMANSKY
TrustPoint

BEAMER
GoTransverse

LESTER
LogMeIn

PONO
-MAREVA

Google

SINGH
Sencha

CALKINS
Amadeus

KLEIN
Rachio

HOASIN
Aeris

SARKARIA
PHEMI

SPROULE
Metavine

SNELL
Intel

LEVINE
CytexOne

ALLEN
Freewave

MCCALLUM
Falconstor

HYEDT
Seamless

Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

SCHULZ
Luxoft

TAMBURINI
Autodesk

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

THURAI
SaneIoT

TURNER
Cloudian

ENDO
Intrepid

NAKAGAWA
Transparent

SHIBATA
Transparent

LEVANT-LEVI
testRTC

VARAN NATH
GE

COOPER
M2Mi

SENAY
Teletax

SKEEN
Vitria

KOCHER
Grey Heron

GREENE
PubNub

MAGUIRE
HP

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

STEINER-JOVIC
AweSense

LYNN
AgilData

HEDGES
Cloudata

DUFOUR
Webroot

ROBERTS
Platform

JONES
Deep

PFEIFFER
NICTA

NIELSEN
Redis

PAOLALANTORIO
DataArchon

KAHN
Solgenia

LOPEZ
Kurento

KIM
MapR

BROMHEAD
Instaclustr

LEVINE
CytexOne

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

GORBACHEV
Intelligent
Systems

THYKATTIL
Navisite

TRELOAR
Bebaio

SIVARAMA-
KRISHNAN

Red Hat
Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

DE SOUZA
Cisco

POTTER
SafeLogic

ROBINSON
CompTIA

WARUSA
-WITHANA

WSO2 Inc

MEINER
Oracle

CHOU
Microsoft

HARRISON
Tufin

BRUNOZZI
VMware

KIM
MapR

KANE
Dyn

SICULAR
Basho

TURNER
Cloudian

KUMAR
Liaison

ADAMIAK
Liaison

KHAN
Solgenia

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

SUSSMAN
Coalfire

ISAACSON
RMS

LYNN
CodeFutures

HEABERLIN
Windstream

RAMA
MURTHY

Virtusa

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE MENO
CommVault

GRILLI
Adobe

WILLIAMS
Rancher Labs

CRISWELL
Alert Logic

COTY
Alert Logic

JACOBS
SingleHop

MARAVEI
Cisco

JACKSON
Softlayer

SINGH
IBM

HAZARD
Softlayer

GALLO
Softlayer

TAMASKAR
GENBAND

SUBRA
-MANIAN

Emcien

LEVESQUE
Windstream

IVANOV
StorPool

BLOOMBERG
Intellyx

BUDHANI
Soha

HATHAWAY
IBM Watson

TOLL
ProfitBricks

LANDRY
Microsoft

BEARFIELD
Blue Box

HERITAGE
Akana

PILUSO
SIASMSP

HOLT
IBM Cloudant

SHAN
CTS

PICCININNI
EMC

BRON-
GERSMA

Modulus

PAIGE
CenturyLink

SABHIKHI
Cognitive Scale

MILLS
Green House Data

KATZEN
CenturyLink

SLOPER
CenturyLink

SRINIVAS
EMC

TALREJA
Cisco

GORBACHEV
Systems Services Inc.

COLLISON
Apcera

PRABHU
OpenCrowd

LYNN
CodeFutures

SWARTZ
Ericsson

MOSHENKO
CoreOS

BERMINGHAM
SIOS

WILLIS
Stateless Networks

MURPHY
Gridstore

KHABE
Vicom

NIKOLOV
GetClouder

DIETZE
Windstream

DALRYMPLE
EnterpriseDB

MAZZUCCO
TierPoint

RIVERA
WHOA.com

HERITAGE
Akana

SEYMOUR
6fusion

GIANNETTO
Author

CARTER
IBM

ROGERS
Virtustream
Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers

TESAR
Microsoft

MICKOS
HP

BHARGAVA
Intel

RILEY
Riverbed

DEVINE
IBM

ISAACSON
CodeFutures

LYNN
HP

HINKLE
Citrix

KHAN
Solgenia

SINGH
Bigdata

BEACH
SendGrid

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE SOUZA
Cisco

PATTATHIL
Harbinger

O'BRIEN
Aria Systems

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

BIANCO
Solgenia

PROCTOR
NuoDB

DUGGAL
EnterpriseWeb

TEGETHOFF
Appcore

BRUNOZZI
VMware

HICKENS
Parasoft

KLEBANOV
Cisco

PETERS
Esri

GOLDBERG
Vormetric

CUMBER-
LAND

Dimension

ROSENDAHL
Quantum

LOOMIS
Cloudant

BRUNO
StackIQ

HANNON
SoftLayer

JACKSON
SoftLayer

HOCH
Virtustream

KAPADIA
Seagate

PAQUIN
OnLive

TSAI
Innodisk

BARRALL
Connected Data

SHIAH
AgilePoint

SEGIL
Verizon

PODURI
Citrix

COWIE
Dyn

RITTEN-
HOUSE

Cisco

FALLOWS
Kaazing

THYKATTIL
TimeWarner

LEIDUCK
SAP

LYNN
HP

WAGSTAFF
BSQUARE

POLLACK
AOL

KAMARAJU
Vormetric

BARRY
Catbird

MENDEN-
HALL

SUPERNAP

SHAN
KEANE

PLESE
Verizon

BARNUM
Voxox

TURNER
Cloudian

CALDERON
Advanced Systems

AGARWAL
SOA Software

LEE
Quantum

OBEROI
Concurrent, Inc.

HATEM
Verizon

GALEY
Autodesk

CAUTHRON
NIMBOXX

BARSOUM
IBM

GORDON
1Plug

LEWIS
Verizon

YEO
OrionVM

NAKAGAWA
Transparent Cloud Computing

SHIBATA
Transparent Cloud Computing

NATH
GE

GOKCEN
GE

STOICA
Databricks

TANKEL
Pivotal Software


Testimonials
This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
@SteveMar_Msft
General Manager of Window Azure
 
How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
@SOASoftwareInc
 
Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
Yasser Khan
CEO of @Cnnct2me
 
One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."

@Peak_Ten


Who Should Attend?
Senior Technologists including CIOs, CTOs & Vps of Technology, Chief Systems Engineers, IT Directors and Managers, Network and Storage Managers, Enterprise Architects, Communications and Networking Specialists, Directors of Infrastructure.

Business Executives including CEOs, CMOs, & CIOs , Presidents & SVPs, Directors of Business Development , Directors of IT Operations, Product and Purchasing Managers, IT Managers.

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Cloud Expo Show Guide
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@CloudExpo Blogs
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architect, explored how storage and software-defined solutions from IBM have evolved for the road ahead. Lea...
The need for greater agility and scalability necessitated the digital transformation in the form of following equation: monolithic to microservices to serverless architecture (FaaS). To keep up with the cut-throat competition, the organisations need to update their technology stack to make software development their differentiating factor. Thus microservices architecture emerged as a potential method to provide development teams with greater flexibility and other advantages, such as the ability to deliver applications at warp speed using infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a ...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration and discussed ways to control cloud costs.
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
The use of containers by developers -- and now increasingly IT operators -- has grown from infatuation to deep and abiding love. But as with any long-term affair, the honeymoon soon leads to needing to live well together ... and maybe even getting some relationship help along the way. And so it goes with container orchestration and automation solutions, which are rapidly emerging as the means to maintain the bliss between rapid container adoption and broad container use among multiple cloud hosts. This BriefingsDirect cloud services maturity discussion focuses on new ways to gain container orc...
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across business networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost as well as advance trade. Are you curious about how Blockchain is built for business? In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, discussed the basics of Blockchain, previewed the Blockchain Reference Architecture, and introduced the mechanics o...
In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Dumas, Calligo’s Vice President and G.M. of US operations, discussed the new Global Data Protection Regulation and how Calligo can help business stay compliant in digitally globalized world. Greg Dumas is Calligo's Vice President and G.M. of US operations. Calligo is an established service provider that provides an innovative platform for trusted cloud solutions. Calligo’s customers are typically most concerned about GDPR compliance, application performance guarantees & data privacy.
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
ChatOps is an emerging topic that has led to the wide availability of integrations between group chat and various other tools/platforms. Currently, HipChat is an extremely powerful collaboration platform due to the various ChatOps integrations that are available. However, DevOps automation can involve orchestration and complex workflows. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Himanshu Chhetri, CTO at Addteq, will cover practical examples and use cases such as self-provisioning infrastructure/applications, self-remediation workflows, integrating monitoring and complimenting integra...
Blockchain. A day doesn’t seem to go by without seeing articles and discussions about the technology. According to PwC executive Seamus Cushley, approximately $1.4B has been invested in blockchain just last year. In Gartner’s recent hype cycle for emerging technologies, blockchain is approaching the peak. It is considered by Gartner as one of the ‘Key platform-enabling technologies to track.’ While there is a lot of ‘hype vs reality’ discussions going on, there is no arguing that blockchain is being taken very seriously across industries and cannot be ignored.
Bitcoins are a digital cryptocurrency and have been around since 2009. As a substitute for legal tender, they are becoming the rage for investors and others but because there is no government agency auditing or performing regulatory oversights, you wonder if it is the perfect breeding ground for electronic nano crime. Since the introduction of the Bitcoin, some competitors have emerged and the whole segment of cryptocurrencies are defined as Altcoins. Altcoins include Dogecoin, Ethereum Feathercoin, Litecoin, Novacoin, Peercoin, and Zetacoin. Some of these cryptocurrencies are considered impro...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management c...
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
Blockchain offers impeccable security with its cryptography-based decentralized system as well as the plethora of possible uses retailers could exploit in the near future. In a world of increasing cyberattacks, internet fraud and online hacking, blockchain comes as a breath of fresh air. With its encrypted data and decentralized network system, it's a thorn in every hacker's side. Generally being associated with the finance sector, blockchain is now taking retail by storm. It's on a course that will change the retail industry as we know it. But how exactly is it going to achieve such a feat?
Making informed network investment decisions about emerging technologies such as network function virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) can help evolve the network to keep pace with the innovations of the devices and people it’s connecting. As you work with business leaders to make decisions about upgrading your infrastructure with these networking developments, it’s important to understand the similarities, differences, and benefits of dual NFV and SDN implementation. With their ability to offer a new way to design, deploy, and manage the network and its services, NFV a...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and optimization to employee training and insights, all ultimately create the best customer experience b...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, which can process our conversational commands and orchestrate the outcomes we request across our persona...
Most of us understand that artificial intelligence (AI) offers opportunities for productivity improvements in the form of speed, automation, standardized actions and responses, plus the opportunity for continuous improvements via machine learning. These opportunities are enabled by data inputs that are analyzed and processed through AI algorithms that execute a desired decision and action. For all of the great capabilities and benefits that AI can provide, there is also a potential dark side. AI solutions can easily codify our prejudices, bias, gender stereotypes and promote injustices intenti...