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Java’s Built-In Garbage Collection | @CloudExpo #Java #Cloud #DevOps
Sun Java’s initial garbage collector did nothing to improve the image of garbage collection

How Java's Built-In Garbage Collection Will Make Your Life Better (Most of the Time)
By Kirk Pepperdine

“No provision need be made for the user to program the return of registers to the free-storage list.”

This line (along with the dozen or so that followed it) is buried in the middle of John McCarthy’s landmark paper, “Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine,” published in 1960. It is the first known description of automated memory management.

In specifying how to manage memory in Lisp, McCarthy was able to exclude explicit memory management. Thus, McCarthy relieved developers of the tedium of manual memory management. What makes this story truly amazing is that these few words inspired others to incorporate some form of automated memory management—otherwise known as garbage collection (GC)—into more than three quarters of the more widely used languages and runtimes developed since then. This list includes the two most popular platforms, Java’s Virtual Machine (JVM) and .NET’s Common Language Runtime (CLR), as well as the up and coming Go Lang by Google. GC exists not just on big iron but on mobile platforms such as Android’s Dalvik, Android Runtime, and Apple’s Swift. You can even find GC running in your web browser as well as on hardware devices such as SSDs. Let’s explore some of the reasons why the industry prefers automated over manual memory management.

Automatic Memory Management’s Humble Beginnings
So, how did McCarthy devise automated memory management? First, the Lisp engine decomposed Lisp expressions into sub-expressions, and each S-expression was stored in a single word node in a linked list. The nodes were allocated from a free list, but they didn’t have to be returned to the free list until it was empty.

Once the free list was empty, the runtime traced through the linked list and marked all reachable nodes. Next, it scanned through the buffer containing all nodes, and returned unmarked nodes to the free list. With the free-list refilled, the application would continue on.

Today, this is known as a single-space, in-place, tracing garbage collection. The implementation was quite rudimentary: it only had to deal with an acyclic-directed graph where all nodes were exactly the same size. Only a single thread ran, and that thread either executed application code or the garbage collector. In contrast, today’s collectors in the JVM must cope with a directed graph with cycles and nodes that are not uniformly sized. The JVM is multi-threaded, running on multi-core CPUs, possibly multi-socketed motherboards. Consequently, today’s implementations are far more complex—to the point GC experts struggle to predict performance in any given situation.

Slow Going: Garbage Collection Pause Time
When the Lisp garbage collector ran, the application stalled. In the initial versions of Lisp it was common for the collector to take 30 to 40 percent of the CPU cycles. On 1960s hardware this could cause the application stall, in what is known as a stop-the-world pause, for several minutes. The benefit was that allocation had barely any impact on application throughput (the amount of useful work done). This implementation highlighted the constant battle between pause time and impact on application throughput that persists to this day.

In general, the better the pause time characteristic of the collector, the more impact it has on application throughput. The current implementations in Java all come with pause time/overhead costs. The parallel collections come with long pause times and low overheads, while the mostly concurrent collectors have shorter pause times and consume more computing resources (both memory and CPU).

The goal of any GC implementer is to maximize the minimum amount of processor time that mutator threads are guaranteed to receive, a concept known as minimum mutator utilization (MMU). Even so, current GC overheads can run well under 5 percent, versus the 15 to 20 percent overhead you will experience in a typical C++ application.

So why you don’t feel this overhead like you do in a Java application? Because the overhead is evenly spread throughout the C/C++ run time, it is perceptibly invisible to the end users. In fact the biggest complaint about managed memory is that it pauses your application at unpredictable times for an unpredictable amount of time.

Garbage Collection Advancements
Sun Java’s initial garbage collector did nothing to improve the image of garbage collection. Its single-threaded, single-spaced implementation stalled applications for long periods of time and created a significant drag on allocation rates. It wasn’t until Java 2, when a generational memory pool scheme—along with parallel, mostly concurrent and incremental collectors—was introduced. While these collectors offered improved pause time characteristics, pause times continue to be problematic. Moreover, these implementations are so complex that it’s unlikely most developers have the experience necessary to tune them. To further complicate the picture, IBM, Azul, and RedHat have one or more of their own garbage collectors—each with their own histories, advantages and quirks. In addition, a number of companies including SAP, Twitter, Google, Alibaba, and others have their own internal JVM teams with modified versions of the Garbage collectors.

Costs and Benefits of Modern-Day Garbage Collection

Over time, an addition of alternate and more complex allocation paths led to huge improvements in the allocation overhead picture. For example, a fast-path allocation in the JVM is now approximately 30 times faster than a typical allocation in C/C++. The complication: Only data that can pass an escape analysis test is eligible for fast-path allocation. (Fortunately the vast majority of our data passes this test and benefits from this alternate allocation path.)

Another advantage is in the reduced costs and simplified cost models that come with evacuating collectors. In this scheme, the collector copies live data to another memory pool. Thus, there is no cost to recover short-lived data. This isn’t an invitation to allocate ad nauseam, because there is a cost for each allocation and high allocation rates trigger more frequent GC activity and accumulate extra copy costs. While evacuating collectors helps make GC more efficient and predictable, there are still significant resource costs.

That leads us to memory. Memory management demands that you retain at least five times more memory than manual memory management needs. There are times the developer knows for certain that data should be freed. In those cases, it is cheaper to explicitly free rather than have a collector reason through the decision. It was these costs that originally caused Apple to choose manual memory management for Objective-C. In Swift, Apple chose to use reference counting. They added annotations for weak and owned references to help the collector cope with circular references.

There are other intangible or difficult-to-measure costs that can be attributed to design decisions in the runtime. For example, the loss of control over memory layouts can result in application performance being dominated by L2 cache misses and cache line densities. The performance hit in these cases can easily exceed a factor of 10:1. One of the challenges for future implementers is to allow for better control of memory layouts.

Looking back at how poorly GC performed when first introduced into Lisp and the long and often frustrating road to its current state, it’s hard to imagine why anyone building a runtime would want to use managed memory. But consider that if you manually manage memory, you need access to the underlying reference system—and that means the language needs added syntax to manipulate memory pointers.

Languages that rely on managed memory consistently lack the syntax needed to manage pointers because of the memory consistency guarantee. That guarantee states that all pointers will point where they should without dangling (null) pointers waiting to blow up the runtime, if you should happen to step on them. The runtime can’t make this guarantee if developers are allowed to directly create and manipulate pointers. As an added bonus, removing them from the language removes indirection, one of the more difficult concepts for developers to master. Quite often bugs are a result of a developer engaged in the mental gymnastics required to juggle a multitude of competing concerns and getting it wrong. If this mix contains reasoning through application logic, along with manual memory management and different memory access modes, bugs likely appear in the code. In fact, bugs in systems that rely on manual memory management are among the most serious and largest source of security holes in our systems today.

To prevent these types of bugs the developer always has to ask, “Do I still have a viable reference to this data that prevents me from freeing it?” Often the answer to this question is, “I don’t know.” If a reference to that data was passed to another component in the system, it’s almost impossible to know if memory can safely be freed. As we all know too well, pointer bugs will lead to data corruption or, in the best case, a SIGSEGV.

Removing pointers from the picture tends to yield a code that is more readable and easier to reason through and maintain. GC knows when it can reclaim memory. This attribute allows projects to safely consume third-party components, something that rarely happens in languages with manual memory management.

Conclusion
At its best, memory management can be described as a tedious bookkeeping task. If memory management can be crossed off the to-do list, then developers tend to be more productive and produce far fewer bugs. We have also seen that GC is not a panacea as it comes with its own set of problems. But thankfully the march toward better implementations continues.

Go Lang’s new collector uses a combination of reference counting and tracing to reduce overheads and minimize pause times. Azul claims to have solved the GC pause problem by driving pause times down dramatically. Oracle and IBM keep working on collectors that they claim are better suited for very large heaps that contain significant amounts of data. RedHat has entered the fray with Shenandoah, a collector that aims to completely eliminate pause times from the run time. Meanwhile, Twitter and Google continue to improve the existing collectors so they continue to be competitive to the newer collectors.

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The post How Java’s Built-In Garbage Collection Will Make Your Life Better (Most of the Time) appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog | AppDynamics.

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In high-production environments where release cycles are measured in hours or minutes — not days or weeks — there's little room for mistakes and no room for confusion. Everyone has to understand what's happening, in real time, and have the means to do whatever is necessary to keep applications up and running optimally.

DevOps is a high-stakes world, but done well, it delivers the agility and performance to significantly impact business competitiveness.

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While some developers care passionately about how data centers and clouds are architected, for most, it is only the end result that matters. To the majority of companies, technology exists to solve a business problem, and only delivers value when it is solving that problem. 2017 brings the mainstream adoption of containers for production workloads. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ben McCormack, VP of Operations at Evernote, discussed how data centers of the future will be managed, how the p...
"Since we launched LinuxONE we learned a lot from our customers. More than anything what they responded to were some very unique security capabilities that we have," explained Mark Figley, Director of LinuxONE Offerings at IBM, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...

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[Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017]


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Sponsorship opportunities are now open for Big Data at Cloud Expo 2017 Santa Clara, Oct 31-Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, and Big Data at Cloud Expo 2018 New York, June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. For sponsorship, exhibit opportunities and show prospectus, please contact Carmen Gonzalez, carmen (at) sys-con.com.



Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

MAHADEV
Cisco

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

FELICIANO
AMDG

PAUL
VenueNext

SMITH
Eviot

BEAMER
goTraverse

GETTENS
goTraverse

CHAMBLISS
ReadyTalk

HERBERTS
Cityzen Data

REITBAUER
Dynatrace

WILLIAM-
SON

Cloud
Computing

SCHMARZO
EMC

WOOD
VeloCloud

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

VARAN-
NATH

GE

SRIDHARA-
BALAN

Pulzze

METRIC
Linux

MONTES
Iced

ARIOLA
Parasoft

HOLT
Daitan

CUNNING-
HAM

ReadyTalk

BEDRO-
SIAN

Cypress

NAMIE
Cisco

NAKA-
GAWA

Transparent
Cloud

SHIBATA
Transparent
Cloud

BOYD
Neo4j

WARD
DWE

MILLER
Covisint

EVAVOLD
Covisint

MEINER
Oracle

MEEHAN
Esri

WITECK
Citrix

LIANG
Rancher Labs

BUTLER
Tego

ROWE
IBM Cloud

SKILLERN
Intel

SMITH
Numerex
Big Data Expo New York All-Star Speakers Include

CLELAND
HGST

VASILIOU
Catchpoint

WALLGREN
Electric Cloud

HINCH-
CLIFFE

7Summits

DE SOUZA
Cisco

RANDALL
Gartner

ARMSTRONG
AppNeta

SMALLTREE
Cazena

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

DELOACH
Infobright

QUINT
Ontegrity

MALAUCHLAN
Buddy Platform

PALIOTTA
Vector

MITRA
Cognizant

KOCHER
Grey Heron

PAPDO
POULOS

Cloud9

HARLAN
Two Bulls

GOLO
SHUBIN

Bit6

PROIETTI
Location
Smart

MARTIN
nfrastructure

MOULINE
Everbridge

MARSH
Blue Pillar

PARKS
SecureRF

PEROTTI
Plantronics

HOFFMAN
EastBanc

WATSON
Trendalyze

BENSONOFF
Unigma

SHAN
CTS

MATTELA
Redpine

GILLEN
Spark
Coginition

SOLT
Netvibes

BERNARDO
GE Digital

ROMANSKY
TrustPoint

BEAMER
GoTransverse

LESTER
LogMeIn

PONO
-MAREVA

Google

SINGH
Sencha

CALKINS
Amadeus

KLEIN
Rachio

HOASIN
Aeris

SARKARIA
PHEMI

SPROULE
Metavine

SNELL
Intel

LEVINE
CytexOne

ALLEN
Freewave

MCCALLUM
Falconstor

HYEDT
Seamless

Big Data Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers Include

SCHULZ
Luxoft

TAMBURINI
Autodesk

MCCARTHY
Bsquare

THURAI
SaneIoT

TURNER
Cloudian

ENDO
Intrepid

NAKAGAWA
Transparent

SHIBATA
Transparent

LEVANT-LEVI
testRTC

VARAN NATH
GE

COOPER
M2Mi

SENAY
Teletax

SKEEN
Vitria

KOCHER
Grey Heron

GREENE
PubNub

MAGUIRE
HP

MATTHIEU
Octoblu

STEINER-JOVIC
AweSense

LYNN
AgilData

HEDGES
Cloudata

DUFOUR
Webroot

ROBERTS
Platform

JONES
Deep

PFEIFFER
NICTA

NIELSEN
Redis

PAOLALANTORIO
DataArchon

KAHN
Solgenia

LOPEZ
Kurento

KIM
MapR

BROMHEAD
Instaclustr

LEVINE
CytexOne

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

GORBACHEV
Intelligent
Systems

THYKATTIL
Navisite

TRELOAR
Bebaio

SIVARAMA-
KRISHNAN

Red Hat
Cloud Expo New York All-Star Speakers Included

DE SOUZA
Cisco

POTTER
SafeLogic

ROBINSON
CompTIA

WARUSA
-WITHANA

WSO2 Inc

MEINER
Oracle

CHOU
Microsoft

HARRISON
Tufin

BRUNOZZI
VMware

KIM
MapR

KANE
Dyn

SICULAR
Basho

TURNER
Cloudian

KUMAR
Liaison

ADAMIAK
Liaison

KHAN
Solgenia

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

SUSSMAN
Coalfire

ISAACSON
RMS

LYNN
CodeFutures

HEABERLIN
Windstream

RAMA
MURTHY

Virtusa

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE MENO
CommVault

GRILLI
Adobe

WILLIAMS
Rancher Labs

CRISWELL
Alert Logic

COTY
Alert Logic

JACOBS
SingleHop

MARAVEI
Cisco

JACKSON
Softlayer

SINGH
IBM

HAZARD
Softlayer

GALLO
Softlayer

TAMASKAR
GENBAND

SUBRA
-MANIAN

Emcien

LEVESQUE
Windstream

IVANOV
StorPool

BLOOMBERG
Intellyx

BUDHANI
Soha

HATHAWAY
IBM Watson

TOLL
ProfitBricks

LANDRY
Microsoft

BEARFIELD
Blue Box

HERITAGE
Akana

PILUSO
SIASMSP

HOLT
IBM Cloudant

SHAN
CTS

PICCININNI
EMC

BRON-
GERSMA

Modulus

PAIGE
CenturyLink

SABHIKHI
Cognitive Scale

MILLS
Green House Data

KATZEN
CenturyLink

SLOPER
CenturyLink

SRINIVAS
EMC

TALREJA
Cisco

GORBACHEV
Systems Services Inc.

COLLISON
Apcera

PRABHU
OpenCrowd

LYNN
CodeFutures

SWARTZ
Ericsson

MOSHENKO
CoreOS

BERMINGHAM
SIOS

WILLIS
Stateless Networks

MURPHY
Gridstore

KHABE
Vicom

NIKOLOV
GetClouder

DIETZE
Windstream

DALRYMPLE
EnterpriseDB

MAZZUCCO
TierPoint

RIVERA
WHOA.com

HERITAGE
Akana

SEYMOUR
6fusion

GIANNETTO
Author

CARTER
IBM

ROGERS
Virtustream
Cloud Expo Silicon Valley All-Star Speakers

TESAR
Microsoft

MICKOS
HP

BHARGAVA
Intel

RILEY
Riverbed

DEVINE
IBM

ISAACSON
CodeFutures

LYNN
HP

HINKLE
Citrix

KHAN
Solgenia

SINGH
Bigdata

BEACH
SendGrid

BOSTOCK
IndependenceIT

DE SOUZA
Cisco

PATTATHIL
Harbinger

O'BRIEN
Aria Systems

BONIFAZI
Solgenia

BIANCO
Solgenia

PROCTOR
NuoDB

DUGGAL
EnterpriseWeb

TEGETHOFF
Appcore

BRUNOZZI
VMware

HICKENS
Parasoft

KLEBANOV
Cisco

PETERS
Esri

GOLDBERG
Vormetric

CUMBER-
LAND

Dimension

ROSENDAHL
Quantum

LOOMIS
Cloudant

BRUNO
StackIQ

HANNON
SoftLayer

JACKSON
SoftLayer

HOCH
Virtustream

KAPADIA
Seagate

PAQUIN
OnLive

TSAI
Innodisk

BARRALL
Connected Data

SHIAH
AgilePoint

SEGIL
Verizon

PODURI
Citrix

COWIE
Dyn

RITTEN-
HOUSE

Cisco

FALLOWS
Kaazing

THYKATTIL
TimeWarner

LEIDUCK
SAP

LYNN
HP

WAGSTAFF
BSQUARE

POLLACK
AOL

KAMARAJU
Vormetric

BARRY
Catbird

MENDEN-
HALL

SUPERNAP

SHAN
KEANE

PLESE
Verizon

BARNUM
Voxox

TURNER
Cloudian

CALDERON
Advanced Systems

AGARWAL
SOA Software

LEE
Quantum

OBEROI
Concurrent, Inc.

HATEM
Verizon

GALEY
Autodesk

CAUTHRON
NIMBOXX

BARSOUM
IBM

GORDON
1Plug

LEWIS
Verizon

YEO
OrionVM

NAKAGAWA
Transparent Cloud Computing

SHIBATA
Transparent Cloud Computing

NATH
GE

GOKCEN
GE

STOICA
Databricks

TANKEL
Pivotal Software


Testimonials
This week I had the pleasure of delivering the opening keynote at Cloud Expo New York. It was amazing to be back in the great city of New York with thousands of cloud enthusiasts eager to learn about the next step on their journey to embracing a cloud-first worldl."
@SteveMar_Msft
General Manager of Window Azure
 
How does Cloud Expo do it every year? Another INCREDIBLE show - our heads are spinning - so fun and informative."
@SOASoftwareInc
 
Thank you @ThingsExpo for such a great event. All of the people we met over the past three days makes us confident IoT has a bright future."
Yasser Khan
CEO of @Cnnct2me
 
One of the best conferences we have attended in a while. Great job, Cloud Expo team! Keep it going."

@Peak_Ten


Who Should Attend?
Senior Technologists including CIOs, CTOs & Vps of Technology, Chief Systems Engineers, IT Directors and Managers, Network and Storage Managers, Enterprise Architects, Communications and Networking Specialists, Directors of Infrastructure.

Business Executives including CEOs, CMOs, & CIOs , Presidents & SVPs, Directors of Business Development , Directors of IT Operations, Product and Purchasing Managers, IT Managers.

Download Cloud Expo Show Guide
Cloud Expo Show Guide
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SYS-CON Media has a flourishing Media Partner program in which mutually beneficial promotion and benefits are arranged between our own leading Enterprise IT portals and events and those of our partners.

If you would like to participate, please provide us with details of your website/s and event/s or your organization and please include basic audience demographics as well as relevant metrics such as ave. page views per month.

To get involved, email Patricia Henderson at patricia@sys-con.com.

@CloudExpo Blogs
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architect, explored how storage and software-defined solutions from IBM have evolved for the road ahead. Lea...
The need for greater agility and scalability necessitated the digital transformation in the form of following equation: monolithic to microservices to serverless architecture (FaaS). To keep up with the cut-throat competition, the organisations need to update their technology stack to make software development their differentiating factor. Thus microservices architecture emerged as a potential method to provide development teams with greater flexibility and other advantages, such as the ability to deliver applications at warp speed using infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a ...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration and discussed ways to control cloud costs.
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
The use of containers by developers -- and now increasingly IT operators -- has grown from infatuation to deep and abiding love. But as with any long-term affair, the honeymoon soon leads to needing to live well together ... and maybe even getting some relationship help along the way. And so it goes with container orchestration and automation solutions, which are rapidly emerging as the means to maintain the bliss between rapid container adoption and broad container use among multiple cloud hosts. This BriefingsDirect cloud services maturity discussion focuses on new ways to gain container orc...
Blockchain is a shared, secure record of exchange that establishes trust, accountability and transparency across business networks. Supported by the Linux Foundation's open source, open-standards based Hyperledger Project, Blockchain has the potential to improve regulatory compliance, reduce cost as well as advance trade. Are you curious about how Blockchain is built for business? In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, discussed the basics of Blockchain, previewed the Blockchain Reference Architecture, and introduced the mechanics o...
In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Dumas, Calligo’s Vice President and G.M. of US operations, discussed the new Global Data Protection Regulation and how Calligo can help business stay compliant in digitally globalized world. Greg Dumas is Calligo's Vice President and G.M. of US operations. Calligo is an established service provider that provides an innovative platform for trusted cloud solutions. Calligo’s customers are typically most concerned about GDPR compliance, application performance guarantees & data privacy.
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
ChatOps is an emerging topic that has led to the wide availability of integrations between group chat and various other tools/platforms. Currently, HipChat is an extremely powerful collaboration platform due to the various ChatOps integrations that are available. However, DevOps automation can involve orchestration and complex workflows. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Himanshu Chhetri, CTO at Addteq, will cover practical examples and use cases such as self-provisioning infrastructure/applications, self-remediation workflows, integrating monitoring and complimenting integra...
Blockchain. A day doesn’t seem to go by without seeing articles and discussions about the technology. According to PwC executive Seamus Cushley, approximately $1.4B has been invested in blockchain just last year. In Gartner’s recent hype cycle for emerging technologies, blockchain is approaching the peak. It is considered by Gartner as one of the ‘Key platform-enabling technologies to track.’ While there is a lot of ‘hype vs reality’ discussions going on, there is no arguing that blockchain is being taken very seriously across industries and cannot be ignored.
Bitcoins are a digital cryptocurrency and have been around since 2009. As a substitute for legal tender, they are becoming the rage for investors and others but because there is no government agency auditing or performing regulatory oversights, you wonder if it is the perfect breeding ground for electronic nano crime. Since the introduction of the Bitcoin, some competitors have emerged and the whole segment of cryptocurrencies are defined as Altcoins. Altcoins include Dogecoin, Ethereum Feathercoin, Litecoin, Novacoin, Peercoin, and Zetacoin. Some of these cryptocurrencies are considered impro...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management c...
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
Blockchain offers impeccable security with its cryptography-based decentralized system as well as the plethora of possible uses retailers could exploit in the near future. In a world of increasing cyberattacks, internet fraud and online hacking, blockchain comes as a breath of fresh air. With its encrypted data and decentralized network system, it's a thorn in every hacker's side. Generally being associated with the finance sector, blockchain is now taking retail by storm. It's on a course that will change the retail industry as we know it. But how exactly is it going to achieve such a feat?
Making informed network investment decisions about emerging technologies such as network function virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) can help evolve the network to keep pace with the innovations of the devices and people it’s connecting. As you work with business leaders to make decisions about upgrading your infrastructure with these networking developments, it’s important to understand the similarities, differences, and benefits of dual NFV and SDN implementation. With their ability to offer a new way to design, deploy, and manage the network and its services, NFV a...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and optimization to employee training and insights, all ultimately create the best customer experience b...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, which can process our conversational commands and orchestrate the outcomes we request across our persona...
Most of us understand that artificial intelligence (AI) offers opportunities for productivity improvements in the form of speed, automation, standardized actions and responses, plus the opportunity for continuous improvements via machine learning. These opportunities are enabled by data inputs that are analyzed and processed through AI algorithms that execute a desired decision and action. For all of the great capabilities and benefits that AI can provide, there is also a potential dark side. AI solutions can easily codify our prejudices, bias, gender stereotypes and promote injustices intenti...